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DETAILED SOLUTIONS:-

Passage 1

1. 4
The author has not argued in favour of either of the schools of thought throughout the passage. She has merely presented the two sides’ arguments in different paragraphs. Options 1, 3 and 5 can be safely eliminated, therefore. Option 2 states that the author ‘CANNOT decide’,- again something that cannot be figured out on the basis of the information presented in the passage.
2. 2
Refer to the opening statement of the 2nd paragraph.
3. 3
Refer to the first line of the last para. It says that “ everyone does not pay attention to the same things’’, implying that people may have different viewpoints about the same object, because they are paying attention to different aspects of the object.
4. 4
Option 1 talks about inaccuracies, which the author has nowhere mentioned. Option 2 talks about drawbacks, again something that the author has refrained from. Option 3 entails a finding and its implications, whereas the author has been trying to contrast two findings at the same time. Option 5 offers a solution, which has not been provided by the author.
 
Passage 2
1. 2
Refer to what follows the word- ‘calm river…’. Hence
2.5
The first paragraph suggests that western values favour the ‘primary control’ mechanism, thereby meeting the problems up-front and in fact by grabbing ‘their bulls by their horns..”. Such an approach would not be very successful in the situation mentioned in the last paragraph, where the ‘stopper’ is a metaphor for a crisis. Hence B is incorrect. Also, statement E has no bearing with the author’s views. Hence
3.3
By keeping the head upstream, the survivor would have his/her feet downstream, and hence any obstruction, a rock for example, will be faced by the feet first, thereby minimizing the risk of fatality. By doing the opposite, the head would have to take the blow. Hence
4. 3
Option 1 can be ruled out as water has been used just as a metaphor for life. Besides, the author does not harp merely upon the turbulence factors of life. Option 2 is very close, but the author’s purpose is not merely to define these terms. The author uses them, instead, as a tool to explain human behaviour. Option 4 is very extreme, since the passage does not talk about the ‘chaos theory’ per se. Again, option 5 too is very narrow. Option 3 correctly summarises all the paragraphs, as well as the author’s primary idea.

Passage 3
1. 1
Refer to the second sentence of the penultimate paragraph. Hence
2. 3
Refer to the first line of the 3rd paragraph. Hence
3. 2
The two terms, as explained by the penultimate and ultimate paragraphs, are different primarily in that the real essence is taken to be (perceived as) “the very being of anything, whereby it is, what it is”; the nominal essence, whereas, is taken to be (perceived as), “nothing but that abstract Idea…”. Hence the two terms can be said to be different at the perception level. Also, the two terms differ in their basic definition-owing primarily to the perception of each being different. Hence
4. 5
This is a factual question. Please check the passage.

Passage 4
1. 3
Refer para 2. Study the two similar examples given in the para and match then with choices. The overproduction of particular crop does not affect or harm any common resource shared at the global level.
2. 5
Refer para 3rd, last two sentences: Choice (5)
3.1
Refer para 3rd, last two, sentences. Pay attention to the phrase long hanl.: Choice (1)
4.4
Refer last para , first and second lines. :Choice (4)

Passage 5

1. 4
Refer para 2nd ,3rd and 4th . :Choice (4)
2.5
Sui Juris means ‘of age’ or ‘independent’. :Choice (5)
3. 5
Refer para 3rd , last sentence.: Choice (5)
4. 2
Refer last para, line 2nd and 3rd :Choice (2)

Passage 6
1. 2
Option 1 can be ruled out since it takes upon the literal meaning of the sentence regarding earth’s rotation. The same is the case with option 4 which includes the words as they have been mentioned in the passage. Besides, the author’s focus is upon proving that at times it is necessary to avoid the strict truth, and not that truth and lies should be given ‘equal’ importance. Between options 2 and 3, then, option 2 puts the right message forward, whereas option 3 builds further upon what has been stated and includes the periphery of the importance of lies as well. Also, the given statement does not include anything about ‘overestimation’ of truth. This helps us negate option 3. Hence 2.
2. 1
Option 2 is just the opposite of what the author is trying to imply; hence, ruled out. Option 4 is extremely generalised and does not have any bearing upon the statement concerned. Option 3 states that because of ‘the’ people find truth ‘problematic’, whereas the author wants to express what happens when we attach ‘the’ to the word ‘truth’. Option 1 explains this lucidly. Hence 1.
3. 4
Option 1 could have been correct if it had included the word ‘sometimes’. Option 2 is nowhere intended in the passage. The author, with regard to lawyers, merely points out the difference between the legal aspect of truth and the moral one. Again, option 3 states that ‘some things are more important’ whereas the author has used the word ‘may’ in the context. Option 1 can be found in the 1st paragraph where the author states that “While “liar” is universally a term of opprobrium...”. Hence 4.
4. 2
Options 1, 3 and 4 take only partial aspects of the things discussed in the passage, while option 2 encompasses all fragments. Hence 2.

Passage 7
1. 4
Only C can be concluded about the author. He has not been mentioned to be against funding or embryology. The passage talks about what happens post fertilization and the idea of contraceptive pills does not find a mention in the passage. D states what William Neaves believes. The author tries to contradict Neaves in the last paragraph and thus he is not supportive of the ideas put forth by Neaves. His defiance of Orrin Hatch’s view is clear in the second as well as fourth paragraph.
2. 1
A is a disputed view and the passage does not resolve the dispute. B is true and mentioned in the third paragraph. In the light of what is mentioned in the last paragraph, C is false. It becomes clear in the first passage itself that D is untrue.
3. 1
The author’s argument is that killing an embryo for research purposes is tantamount to killing a life. If it is proved that an embryo is lifeless upto the stage before which scientists use an embryo for research then the author’s argument will fall apart. 1 does that. If the embryo is lifeless upto 15 days after fertilization then it definitely was so at the time of implantation and Gastrulation as well since these stages are reached before 15 days from the time of fertilization. 2, 4 and 5 strengthen his argument. 3 does not make any difference to the argument.
4. 3
Option 1 can be ruled out straightaway. The author gives various arguments and counters the reasons put forward by scientists and researchers who indulge in embryo-destructive research. Hence 3. Further, the author is clearly biased against the embryo-destructive research and argues against it. Thus, 4 is ruled out. Sardonic means mocking/bitter, an idea nowhere supported in the passage.
 
Passage 8
1. 2
The passage talks of the 3 Jeffersons and their respective roles/views in the secession crises. The passage does not tell us how important these roles were with regard to the larger picture but just informs of the Jeffersons participation in the crises. This rules out option 3 and 4 as both are judgements with regards to the significance of the role of the Jeffersons. Options 2 is too vague in the given context.
2. 2
The passage clearly states that ‘But Thomas Jefferson Randolph wasn’t the family’s only scion to join the debate: In late 1860 and early 1861, after the Lower South had seceded, Jefferson’s youngest grandson, emerged as a vociferous skeptic of slavery — and, surprisingly, Unionism’. This helps us identify option 2 as the answer.
3. 1
This is an easy question, and the answer to this question can be found by a close reading of the line in question. The other options in general focus on facts not mentioned in this line or make irrelevant connections and hence are rejected.
4. 4
George Wythe Randolph and Thomas Jefferson Randolph, both differed in their approach. The latter based his approach on his grandfather’s but the former was a lot more vehement with regard to his views. This makes option 4 the correct answer.
 
Passage 9
1. 2
The primary purpose of the author is to show desires dominate human beings and how these make sure that no fixed parameter can be arrived at for judging these desires. He denies that econometrics is of no use when it comes to human desires and how one makes decisions. This leads us to option 3 as the correct answer.
2. 1
One is that single thing that can be referred to with the help of many things. In our case, that single thing is money and the other things are gold, dollars etc. This makes option 1 the correct answer.
3. 3
The author of the passage explains through the passage how human desire cannot be measured and how subjective a phenomenon it is. It is precisely for this reason that any rational system such as econometrics cannot be used to measure human demand as a rational system cannot explain our irrationalities. This makes option 4 the clear answer to the question as it mirrors a similar sentiment.
4. 4
There are a couple of answer choices that need to be kept in mind while analysing this question. The easy to eliminate answer options are 1 and 3 as no such sentiment is exhibited by the author. Option 4 is rejected as the author is in fact unequivocal in his stance. Option 2 again cannot be inferred from the passage as it is more of an emotion that cannot gauged from the given context. Option 5 perfectly fits into the scenario as the author is very categorical in his statements and thoughts, and thinks those are the only correct ones (thus sounding judgemental).
 
Passage 10
1. 4
The answer can be located in the lines:
‘Under a formal SAP, a struggling poor country running a big trade deficit would offer fiscal austerity in return for favourable borrowing terms. Lower interest rates would lead to a lower exchange rate, boosting production and exports. The domestic part of the economy would be squeezed hard. Greece and Ireland have had modern versions of SAPs imposed on them in recent months; the UK has designed its own hair-shirt policy in which a four-year deficit reduction plan is meant to keep the financial markets sweet and allow Threadneedle Street to keep money cheap.’
Also a hair-shirt policy is an austere one, symbolizing sacrifice.
2. 1
Refer to the following lines: ‘Mervyn King warned at the weekend that another financial crisis is brewing. The financial sector remains unreformed, and many of the practices evident in the bubble years – such as speculation in high-yielding but risky investments – are back. Predictably, the Bank of England governor's comments were greeted with the usual riposte from the Big Banks: we are a centre of excellence for the UK but highly mobile. If you mess with us, we'll up sticks and leave the country.’
Option 1 is the correct answer and if you up sticks, you leave somewhere, usually permanently and without warning- he upped sticks and went to work abroad. The idiom catch their tail between their legs implies the Big Banks’ being embarrassed, something that finds no reference in the passage. Option 3 implies an opposite sentiment than intended by the author. Option 4 again reflects a sentiment that is not reflected in the passage.
3. 3
The reference to ‘Threadneedle Street’ is with regard to it keeping money cheap. (First paragraph, last line“…allow Threadneedle Street to keep money cheap) This indicates a financial role of the street, one that is accompanied with financial authority. This sentiment is reflected by option 3. ‘Threadneedle Street’ is in fact where Bank of England, which is the financial regulator for UK, is situated. The street name is used as a reference for the bank itself.
4. 3
The answer has to basically continue the following lines: ‘Taking action that may hinder the expansion of one of the country's few centres of excellence seems far too big a gamble. It will be a brave chancellor who heeds King's warnings and ensures that the banks are no longer "too big to fail"’.
The line clearly ends on an implied question, with option 3 being the answer in case what has been suggested by the author does not take place.
 
Passage 11
1. 4
A pretty factual question. Refer to the 2nd paragraph. Option 4.
2. 3
Refer to the last paragraph of the passage. The first line clearly makes option 3 as the answer choice. The 1st option can be ruled out since his contemporariness has never been mentioned in the passage as a “cause” of his greatness. Option 2 comes immediately after the 1st line of the last paragraph where an extension has been made to the previous statement. This is an added thought, not the one for which the author shows his maximum respect to Hume. Option 4 is just a combination of different words used in the paragraph for different contexts. Hence 3. ‘Labyrinthine’ means ‘complicated’.
3. 2
Options 1 and 3 are ruled out as neither has Hume been described as an economist nor has John Locke been mentioned, however true these statements be. 4 is in contradiction with the statement “That is not the best way…” in 4thpara. 2 is the right answer, refer to the 3rdpara where the author says that Hume’s book is a must read for anyone desirous of “inferring the presence of an intelligent design of a concerned creator of the universe”.
4. 3
The first option can be ruled out since the passage focuses on David Hume’s philosophies, and does not of the rest of the philosophers. Similarly, the author has nowhere presented a ‘comparative’ analysis of Hume’s works with those of other philosophers. Option 4 would make Hume the ‘greatest’ philosopher, whereas, as argued earlier, the author has abstained from comparing Hume with others and declaring him great. All through the passage the author has emphasized on how Hume’s theories have transcended the ages and centuries in which he had presented them and even today his theories are discussed and are ‘alive’. Hence 3.
 
Passage 12
1. 1
A, C, D and E are clearly mentioned in the passage. B has been contradicted in 5th paragraph.
2. 2
By analyzing the arguments presented by the author, we conclude that B is the most apt title. The paradox about the book has been mentioned but it is not the central idea. Other options are far-fetched choices.
3. 1
1 is the right answer.
4. 4
The author’s tone throughout the passage has been analytical. Hence 4.
 
Passage 13
1. 2
Of all the given options, 2 is the best choice.
2. 1
The passage talks about the mythological beliefs mentioned in the preserved historical texts. He does not portray himself as a staunch believer of god, nor does he preach theology. His tone is neutral and he does not criticize. Mentioning poetic texts does not make him a poet.
3. 4
All the options have been mentioned in the passage. Incest features in passage as Cronus’ marriage with Rhea. ‘Hecatonchires or Hundred-Handed Ones’ seems to be from fancy land!
4. 4
Nowhere has it been mentioned that Zeus wanted to be the conqueror of Mount Olympus. Similarly, Metis has not been described as the goddess of cleverness. Rest all the statements find direct or indirect mention in the passage.
 
Passage 14
1. 4
A has been contradicted in the first paragraph. B can, at best, be either Thiel’s view or a debatable topic. C finds mention in the first line of third paragraph. D can be safely concluded from third paragraph.
2. 2
Thiel’s educational qualification has not been mentioned, nor have his managerial skills been highlighted. His views on education system have been stated without validating or undermining them.
3. 3
A has neither been mentioned nor can it be inferred from any statement. B cannot be inferred; housing bubble has been mentioned superficially and its causes have not been discussed. C has been mentioned with regard to Harvard only and cannot be generalized. D is given in the second line of the first paragraph.
4. 2
The topic of discussion in the passage gives a hint of the author of the passage being an economist.
 
Passage 15
1. 4
The author says ‘Honesty needs guts’ in the sixth paragraph. B cannot be inferred as the author does say repeatedly that intelligent people shouldn’t join politics but he does not suggest a career path to them. The author would agree with C as he has painted all politicians with the same brush and seems to take a cynical view of them. He says- “An honest person in politics? Impossible!” According to the author, the older generation tries to mould the mind of the new generation. The teacher is just an agent of the older generation. Hence, the author would not agree that teacher himself wants to mould the mind of the new generation.
2. 2
The author has been critical of politicians throughout and uses humour to convey that politicians are crooked to the core.
3. 4
The clutches or association of a politician has been directly compared to a cage. Hence, it’s a metaphorical usage. The passage begins with a rhetorical question. The story of politician named Strange is a satire.
4. 3
Throughout the passage, the author has taken a cynical view of politicians and has derided and ridiculed them.
 
Passage 16
1. 1
A is false as the passage mentions the number of judges per million people in India but does not state the number to be the least. B is true and is mentioned in the first 2nd paragraph. C is untrue as the provisions mentioned in C are the provisions of ‘The Bribery Act, 2010’ enacted in UK and not of the Lokpal Bill. Anna Hazare has not been mentioned in the passage.
2. 3
All others have been proposed in the passage.
3. 3
The word ‘antiquated’ has been used as a verb to mean ‘made or became useless; fallen into disuse’. The word that comes closest to the above stated meaning is ‘Obsolete’.
4. 2
The argument mentions number of judges per state and assumes the population of the states in the countries mentioned and in Indian states to be equal. Now if it is shown that the number of judges per thousand/lakh/million/ people in the states in other countries is less than or close to that in Indian states, then the entire argument will fall apart. ‘2’ does exactly that. 1 and 2 are completely irrelevant. 4 does not counter the argument made.
 
Passage 17
1. 3
The passage talks of the misconceptions related with foreign aid and how it can be spent better. The ‘cash on delivery’ process explains how its misuse can be stopped. Each of these adds to give us option 3 as the answer, as it incorporates all these points. The best title is the one which keeps in mind all the central aspects of the passage and clearly option 3 satisfies these criteria.
2. 4
The answer to this question can be found in the lines: ‘The facts about foreign aid are crucial to drive home to the American public today, as the political debate over the budget has led many Republicans to single out foreign aid as a target for cuts. (Frank James, who writes a blog at NPR, suggests a novel way to spread the word, using Charlie Sheen’s Twitter account.)
But let’s talk about on-the-ground practical solutions…’
If one has a close look at the first line of the passage, the author clearly does not regard this as a practical solution and clearly uses the example in a lighter vein. This option is encapsulated in option 4.
3. 2
Option 1 can be found in the lines: ‘People don’t have to worry that the money has gone into some government official’s pocket, as taxpayers in wealthy countries won’t be sending money unless there are results’.
Option 2 is contrary to what is stated in the passage and hence is out correct answer.
Option 3 can be found in the lines: ‘In certain situations Cash on Delivery might turn out to be a useful alternative to traditional aid. And its advantages may go beyond a more effective use of dollars: it might increase political support for foreign aid’.
Option 4 can be found in the lines: ‘It could also help to create more accountability in poor countries. In most aid-dependent countries, citizens have no idea how much governments are getting in aid and how they spend it. Cash on Delivery sets clear goals and requires that all information be public’.
4. 2
The view of the author of the passage is pretty clear. He is in clear favour of aid and speaks of better methods of aid implementation right through the passage. The only option which reflects this opinion is option 3.
 
Passage 18
1. 2
The author is primarily describing the various issues related with regard to forgiveness and mentions all the concerns/questions that arise with respect to it. The approach of the author is purely explanatory and the option that best fits this description is option 2.
2. 1
Forswearing means ‘the act of renouncing; sacrificing or giving up or surrendering (a possession or right or title or privilege etc.)’. This makes option 1 the direct answer to the answer.
3. 4
The answer can be found in the lines and is in fact a paraphrase of the second half of this line: ‘Butler is often interpreted as saying that forgiveness requires forswearing resentment, but what he actually says is that it requires tempering resentment and forswearing revenge’.
4. 4
Statement I can be inferred in the lines: ‘The list grows by the hour. It includes hefty representation of religious and self-help perspectives, historical analysis, and increasingly, philosophical reflection as well. Yet there is little consensus about the answers. Indeed, the list of disputed questions is still longer’.
Statement II can be found in the lines: ‘The timing of forgiveness is also disputed. Some say that it should wait for the offender to take responsibility and suffer due punishment, others hold that the victim must first overcome anger altogether, and still others that forgiveness should be unilaterally bestowed at the earliest possible moment’.
Statement III is a paraphrase of the line: ‘legions praise forgiveness and think of it as an indispensable virtue’.
Hence, all of the statements can be found in the passage.
 
Passage 19
1.2
Options 1, 3, 4 and 5 are too narrow and cover only a couple of paragraphs. Hence 2.
2.5
Refer to the 4thpara, third line, where it states that open-nesting honey bees ‘perhaps’ evolved before cavity-nesting bees. Hence 5.
3.1
Refer to the 6thpara, last line, where it states- “Meanwhile, English colonists took bees to New Zealand, Australia and Tasmania, completing human-assisted migration of Apismellifera around the globe.” Hence 1.
4.3
Refer to the last paragraph. Hence 3.
 
Passage 20
1. 3
Option 1 is incorrect as the author mentions in the last paragraph that the expression of an individual might be lost at time in a collective society and in might not be the most beneficial one. There is no evidence which will point towards option 2 as at no point of time does the author make a comparison between dictatorship and democracy. Option 3 points out to single point in the passage, which we cannot summarize to be the belief of the author. Option 5 is not the answer as the author shows no faith in the governments or their roles during the course of the passage. Option 3 represents the belief of the author in the most general terms, by pointing out what is required and what the author wishes the society to be.
2. 4
The author points out clearly that “no government would will often attempt to control the expression of opinion”, pointing further to the fact that doing so would only make it “the organ of the general intolerance of the public”. This clearly brings out that option 4 is the answer. Option 1 cannot be the answer as there are still some laws which could be used by the government for control but they are not used by it. Option 2 and 5 are not mentioned in the passage as such. As for option 3, the author mentions that he does not need to discuss the matter as it has been discussed previously by a body of writers but this is in no way a reason for it not being under threat.
3. 3
Option 3 is the correct answer. The author mentions that individual freedom is under threat and it will not be corrected in due time. But in no way does he imply that it is the reason for it not being corrected. All he has done is mention the natural passage of time which would take place. Hence it is the answer.
4. 3
This is a fairly easy question with the answer being mentioned in the second paragraph: “the grounds, both philosophical and practical, on which they rest, are perhaps not so familiar to the general mind, nor so thoroughly appreciated by many even of the leaders of opinion, as might have been expected.” Hence option 3 is he answer.
 
Passage 21
1. 3
Refer to the penultimate line of the last para.
2. 1
Refer to the 1st line of the 3rd para.
3. 1
Refer to the penultimate line of the 2nd para.
4. 1
This one can be solved by eliminating the other options.
 
Passage 22
1. 4
Sol. (4) Fairly straight-forward question. Refer to the first para.
2. 5
Soln. (5) Both options 3 and 4 are one of the possible tools used to create effects, and not ‘prerequisites’.
3. 4
Sol. (4) Refer to the first two lines of the 3rd para “The creative work of the spectator is to…more conscious and helps to conceptualize them.”
4. 1
Sol. (1) Refer to the first para “Surely it is the transition from sensory apprehension…to see such appearances at once more analytically and more emotionally.”
 
Passage 23
1. 4
A is wrong because how we type cannot influence the literal meaning but just how we perceive it and secondly, it is not the way we type the words but the way the letters are arranged on keyboard that influences the meaning (I para). Also the VI para tells the study on right handed and left handed is not proved yet. Statement B is wrong because arrangement of letters does not have a huge impact. The impact is small but significant (I para). Statement C is wrong because not all keyboards attach more positive meanings. Other layout type of keyboards all still to be scrutinized (VI para also) but just the QWERTY keyboard shows of such an effect. Other keyboards also have an effect but what effect is not mentioned (I para). Statement D is true and can be seen in I and II para.
2. 2
Statement i. is incorrect because QWERTY was not discovered so that people could deliberately attach positive or negative connotations (III para). Statement iv. is incorrect because no information given of QWERTY keyboards being an instant hit (III para). Statement ii. is true and can be seen in VI para. Statement iii. is true because sticking of letters was a problem in previous typewriters therefore QWERTY was launched and the word ‘until then’ tells that this problem was solved by QWERTY (III para).
3. 4
Statement D is correct and can be seen in VI para. Statement A is wrong because such information about the typewriter is not mentioned (Para VI). Statement C is false because this research is the first attempt (para VI). Statement B is false because the perception of meaning is not affected by the difficulty of layout but how difficult an object is to use affects how positively or negatively people view that object (III Para)
4. 2
Statement A is wrong because the difficulty of the name does not matter. What matters is whether the pronunciation of the name is difficult or easy (IV Para). Statement C is wrong because we are not told anything about pronunciation and the link to positive connotation. The link is only with typing arrangement (II Para). Statement D is incorrect because they do not literally have positive or negative connotations but we perceive them to be such (II Para). Statement B is correct and can be seen in II para.
 
Passage 24
1. 3
Poe was the odd man out (para 3). Therefore option (i) is wrong. Para 2 says in France he is taken more seriously so statement ii becomes true. Everyone knows their own Poe tells that Poe’s image changes from place to place. (para 2)
2. 4
the answer is in Para 2. Options 1 and 2 are examples. Option 3 is a true statement but tells nothing about universal familiarity.
3. 3
the answer is clearly stated in Para 3 last line.
4. 1
the answer is stated in para 2.
 
Passage 25
1. 3
Para. 3 clearly states the answer. Statement 1 is just telling there are such kinds of people also who predict change as doom. Statement 4 is non-sense. The words from the passage have been mixed to confuse the reader. Same is with statement 4.
2. 3
Even if there is chaos when a new order is replacing the old order, one must not mourn it. Change needs to be appreciated. (Para 3). Statements 2 and 4 in anyway cannot be answers because they are negative statements. Statement 1 is what they themselves behold and therefore they preach to see the brighter side of it.
3. 4
All the above statements are true. Statement 1 can be seen in Para. 3 end and 4 start, 2 in Para 3, 3 in Para 5, and 4 in Para 1.
4. 2
Para 6 gives the answer.
1 Answer
0

where can I find the answers for RC-1, its not even on FB notes section? 

No Answer Key for RC 1. You shall have a discussion of the same in the class itself.

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